Content Access, Storytelling, and Interactive Media

Content Access, Storytelling, and Interactive Media
Chaper title and links

Abstract

New interactive feature journalism explores the boundaries between storytelling and direct data access. This chapter examines the use of interactive resources in online journalism and describes the evolution undergone by the media in recent years, as interactivity has come to be considered an essential element in the construction of user meaning.

This vision of interaction as a primarily storytelling element involves recognizing its rhetorical value and the fundamental role that the reader plays in the completion and elaboration of the journalistic message in sequences of disrupted narrative.

These new forms of storytelling are revolutionizing basic concepts of interactive documentary, including the role of stories and the user’s direct access to primary information. Assigning centrality to interaction results in transformations that affect the entire information system.

Interactive documentaries and structured journalism offer alternative ways of perceiving the role of information insofar as they allow us to rethink relations between information—what are perceived as data, the different actors associated with it: professionals, reporting communities, the media, and the audience, and, ultimately, the text itself, understood in a very broad sense as multimedia, mutable, modifiable, expandable, and transmedia.

Keywords

Interactive documentary, Storytelling, Interactive information system, Narrativity, Webdoc

(…)


Cite this chapter as:
Freixa P. (2018) “Content Access, Storytelling, and Interactive Media”. In: Pérez-Montoro M. (eds) Interaction in Digital News Media. Palgrave Macmillan (Springer). Access: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96253-5_2

Cited references in text

  1. Aarseth, Espen J. 1997. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar
  2. Aston, Judith Y. 2003. Interactive Multimedia: An Investigation Into Its Potential for Communicating Ideas and Arguments. PhD thesis, Royal College of Art, London. Google Scholar
  3. Aston, Judith Y., and Sandra Gaudenzi. 2012. Interactive Documentary: Setting the Field. Studies in Documentary Film 6 (2): 125–139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aston, Judith Y., Sandra Gaudenzi, and Mandy Rose. 2017. I-Docs: The Evolving Practices of Interactive Documentary. New York: Columbia University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. BBC News Lab. 2015. A manifesto for structured journalism. BBC News Lab, July 7. http://bbcnewslabs.co.uk/2015/07/07/a-manifesto-forstructured-journalism.
  6. Berger, Guy. 2000. Grave New World? Democratic Journalism Enters the Global Twenty-First Century. Journalism Studies 1 (1): 81–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, Matthew, and Karen Tucker. 2017. Unconsented Sterilisation, Participatory Story-Telling, and Digital Counter-Memory in Peru. Antipode 49 (5): 1186–1203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruns, Axel. 2005. Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production. New York: Peter Lang. Google Scholar
  9. Caceres-Alvarez, Andrea. 2017. “Proyecto Quipu”, el documental interactivo sobre las esterilizaciones forzadas de los 90. El Comercio, July 5, 2017. https://elcomercio.pe/luces/cine/proyecto-quipu-documental-interactivo-esterilizaciones-forzadas-90-439938.
  10. Canavilhas, João. 2006. Web Journalism: From the Inverted Pyramid to the Tumbled Pyramid. Covilhã, Portugal: Biblioteca On-line deficiências da comunicação. Google Scholar
  11. Chua, Reg. 2010. Structured Journalism. (Re)structuring Journalism: Rethinking Journalism and the Business of Journalism from the Ground Up. Structure of News, August 12, 2010. https://structureofnews.wordpress.com/2010/08/12/structured-journalism.
  12. Chung, Deborah Soun. 2007. Profits and Perils: Online News Producers’ Perceptions of Interactivity and Uses of Interactive Features. Convergence 13 (1): 43–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cizek, Katerine. 2010a. Introducing: Out of My Window. Highrise Director’s Blog, October 16, 2010. http://highrise.nfb.ca/blog/page/5/.
  14. Cizek, Katerine. 2010b. Behind the Scenes of “Out My Window Story Space Installation”. Highrise Director’s Blog, November 12, 2010. http://highrise.nfb.ca/blog/page/5/.
  15. Cornyn, Alison. 2010. Picture Projects Portfolio. Picture Projects http://picture-projects.com/wp-content/uploads/PPportfolio.pdf.
  16. Court, Maria, and Lerner, Rosemarie. 2015a. The Project. Blog Proyecto Quipu. http://blog.quipu-project.com/about.
  17. Court, Maria, and Lerner, Rosemarie. 2015b. The System. Blog Proyecto Quipu. http://blog.quipu-project.com/about/#system.
  18. Craig, Heather. 2015. Interactive Data Narrative: Designing for Public Engagement. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Google Scholar
  19. Crawford, Chis. 2004. Chis Crawford on Interactive Storytelling. Berkeley: New Riders. Google Scholar
  20. Deuze, Mark. 2003. The Web and Its Journalisms: Considering the Consequences of Different Types of Newsmedia Online. New Media & Society 5 (2): 203–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Domingo, David. 2008. Interactivity in the Daily Routines of Online Newsrooms: Dealing with an Uncomfortable Myth. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (3): 680–704. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dovey, Jon, and Mandy Rose. 2012. We’re Happy and We Know It: Documentary: Data: Montage. Studies in Documentary Film 6 (2): 159–173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Durand, Thibault. 2015. How We Created an Immersive Street Walk Experience with a GoPro and Javascript. Medium, May 19, 2015. https://medium.com/@tibbb/how-we-created-an-immersive-street-walk-experience-with-a-goproand-javascript-f442cf8aa2dd#.frhcagsiw.
  24. Fox, Broderick. 2017. Documentary Media: History, Theory, Practice. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar
  25. Frederick, Dede M. 2013. The Effects of Parallax Scrolling on User Experience and Preference in Web Design. PhD thesis, Purdue University, Indiana. Google Scholar
  26. Freixa, Pere. 2005. La fotografía panorámica y la representación del territorio: antecedentes para una indexación virtual del mundo. Actas del Primer Congreso de Historia de la Fotografía, 105–115. Zarautz: Photomuseum. Google Scholar
  27. Freixa, Pere. 2015. Special Features in Online Journalism. Ten Years of Premios Goya and Oscar Awards in Elpais.com (2005–2014). El profesional de la información 24 (3): 291–300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Freixa, Pere, Carles Sora, Joan Soler-Adillon, and J. Ignasi Ribas. 2014. Snow Fall and A Short History of the Highrise: two approaches to interactive communication design by The New York TimesTextual & Visual Media. 7: 63–84. Google Scholar
  29. Freixa, Pere, Mario Pérez-Montoro, and Lluís Codina. 2017. Interaction and Data Visualization in Structured Journalism. El profesional de la información 26 (6): 1076–1090. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gaudenzi, Sandra. 2014. Strategies of Participation: The Who, What and When of Collaborative Documentaries. In New Documentary Ecologies. Emerging Platforms, Practices and Discourses, ed. Kate Nash, Craig Hight, Catherine Summerhayes, 129–148. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  31. Glickhouse, Rachel. 2017. What We Discovered During a Year of Documenting Hate. Propublica, December 26, 2017. https://www.propublica.org/article/what-we-discovered-during-a-year-of-documenting-hate.
  32. Green, David Philip, Simon Bowen, Jonathan Hook, and Peter Wright. 2017. Enabling Polyvocality in Interactive Documentaries through ‘Structural Participation’. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 6317–6329. Google Scholar
  33. Hadis, Martin. 2002. From Generation to Generation: Family Stories, Computers and Genealogy. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Google Scholar
  34. Harris, Melissa. 1993. Susan Meiselas. Aperture 133: 24–31. Google Scholar
  35. Holovaty, Adrian. 2006. A Fundamental Way Newspaper Sites Need to Change. Adrian Holovaty blog, September 6, 2006. http://www.holovaty.com/writing/fundamental-change.
  36. Holovaty, Adrian. 2008. In Memory of Chicagocrime.org. Adrian Holovaty blog, January 31, 2008. http://www.holovaty.com/writing/chicagocrime.org-tribute.
  37. Jacobson, Susan, Jacqueline Marino, Gutsche Jr., and E. Robert. 2016. The Digital Animation of Literary Journalism. Journalism 17 (4): 527–546. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jaramillo-Arango, Julián. 2018. Cartografías de la sorpresa: prácticas artísticas y paisajes sonoros urbanos en Colombia. Cuadernos de Música, Artes Visuales y Artes Escénicas 13 (1): 173–191. Google Scholar
  39. Jenkins, Henry. 2007. Transmedia Storytelling 101. In Confessions of an Aka-Fan, Henry Jenkins. March 21, 2007. http://henryjenkins.org/blog/2007/03/transmedia_storytelling_101.html.
  40. Jenkins, Henry. 2016. Telling Stories: Lina Srivastava Talks About Transmedia Activism (Part One). In Confessions of an Aka-Fan, Henry Jenkins. January 19, 2016. http://henryjenkins.org/blog/2016/01/telling-stories-lina-srivastava-talks-about-transmedia-activism-part-one.html.
  41. Jensen, Jens. 1998. Interactivity: Tracking a New Concept in Media and Communications Studies. Nordicom Review 19: 185–202. Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, Pamela K. 2015. New Report Analyzes L.A. County Officer-Involved Shootings. NBC News, December 19, 2015. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/call-more-transparency-after-police-involved-shootings-mentally-ill-n480301.
  43. Krinsky, Tamara. 2010. Vertical Integration: The NFB’s ‘High Rise’ Project Tackles Urban Living. Documentary.org. IDA, International Documentary Association, March 2, 2010. https://www.documentary.org/content/vertical-integration-nfbs-high-rise-project-tackles-urban-living.
  44. Landow, George P. 1991. HyperText: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar
  45. Larrondo, Ainara. 2010. The Potential of Web-Only Feature Stories. A Case Study of Spanish Media Sites. Journalism studies 12 (2): 188–204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lasica, Joseph D. 2003. What is Participatory Journalism. Online Journalism Review 7. http://www.ojr.org/ojr/workplace/1060217106.php.
  47. Lewis, Seth C., and Oscar Westlund. 2015. Big Data and Journalism: Epistemology, Expertise, Economics, and Ethics. Digital Journalism 3 (3): 447–466. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Manovich, Lev. 2001. The Language of New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  49. McMillan, Sally J. 2002. A Four-Part Model of Cyber-Interactivity: Some Cyber-Places Are More Interactive Than Others. New Media & Society 4 (2): 271–291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meiselas, Susan. 1997a. akaKurdistan: A Place for Collective Memory and Cultural Exchange. On-line. http://www.akakurdistan.com.
  51. Meiselas, Susan. 1997b. Kurdistan: In the Shadow of History. New York: Random House. Google Scholar
  52. Miller, Judith, and Susan Meiselas. 1993. Iraq Accused: A Case of Genocide. The New York Time Magazine, 12–32, January 3, 1993. Google Scholar
  53. Mitchell, Mary. 2015. Where Voice and Listening Meet: Participation in and Through Interactive Documentary in Peru. Glocal Times, 22–23. Google Scholar
  54. MIT Open Documentary Lab. 2016. Mapping the Intersection of Two Cultures: Interactive Documentary and Digital Journalism. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Google Scholar
  55. Murray, Janet. 1998. Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Google Scholar
  56. Nash, Kate. 2012. Modes of Interactivity: Analysing the Webdoc. Media, Culture and Society 34 (2): 195–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nash, Kate. 2014. Clicking on the World: Documentary Representation and Interactivity. In New Documentary Ecologies, ed. K. Nash, C. Hight, and C. Summerhayes, 50–66. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  58. Nelson, Ted. 1983. Literary Machines. Sausalito, CA: Mindful Press. Google Scholar
  59. O’Flynn, Siobhan. 2014. Psychogeography as Social Activism in Katerina Cizek’s Digital Documentaries Highrise, the 1000th Tower and Out My Window. LISA 12 (1). Google Scholar
  60. Ortuño, Pedro, and Virginia Villaplana. 2017. Activismo Transmedia. Narrativas de participación para el cambio social. Entre la comunicación creativa y el media art. Obra digital: revista de comunicación 12: 123–144. Google Scholar
  61. Palacios, Marcos, and Javier Díaz-Noci (eds.). 2007. On-line Journalism: Research Methods. A Multidisciplinary Approach in Comparative Perspective. Bilbao: Universidad del País Vasco. Google Scholar
  62. Pavlik, John V. 2001. Journalism and New Media. New York: Columbia University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pavlik, John V., and Jackie O. Pavlik. 2017. Understanding Quality in Digital Storytelling: A Theoretically Based Analysis of the Interactive Documentary. In Digital Transformation in Journalism and News Media, ed. M. Friedrichsen and Y. Kamalipour, 381–396. Cham: Springer. Google Scholar
  64. Pope, James. 2006. A Future for Hypertext Fiction. Convergence 12 (4): 447–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pope, James. 2010. Where Do We Go from Here? Convergence 16 (1): 75–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pope, James. 2017. Further on Down the Digital Road. Narrative Design and Reading Pleasure in Five New Media Writing Prize narratives. Convergence, online publication. Google Scholar
  67. ProPublica. 2016. Documenting Hate. About. ProPublica, September 8, 2016. https://projects.propublica.org/graphics/hatecrimes.
  68. Ribas, J. Ignasi. 2001. Cultural Dissemination and Interactive Audiovisual Communication. Temes de Disseny 18, 194–204. Google Scholar
  69. Rogers, Simon. 2017. A New Machine Learning App for Reporting on Hate in America. The Keyword. Google. Journalism & News, August 18, 2017. https://www.blog.google/topics/journalism-news/new-machine-learning-app-reporting-hate-america/.
  70. Ryan, Marie-Laure. 2001. Beyond Myth and Metaphor: The Case of Narrative in Digital Media. Games Studies: The International Journal of Computer Games Research 1: 1. Google Scholar
  71. Ryan, Marie-Laure (ed.). 2004. Narrative Across Media: The Languages of Storytelling. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. Google Scholar
  72. Salaverría, Ramón. 2015. Los labs como fórmula de innovación en los medios. El profesional de la información 24 (4): 397–404. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schultz, Tanjev. 1999. Interactive Options in Online Journalism: A Content Analysis of 100 US Newspapers. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 5: 1. Google Scholar
  74. Soler-Adillon, Joan, Carles Sora, Pere Freixa, and Joan-Ignasi Ribas. 2016. A Profile of the Interactive Communication Professional: Foundations, Current Trends and Perspectives. El profesional de la información 25 (2): 196–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stroud, Natalie-Jomini, Joshua M. Scacco, and Alexander L. Curry. 2016. The Presence and Use of Interactive Features on News Websites. Digital Journalism 4 (3): 339–358. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. The New York Times. 2017. Why We Need a Project to Document Hate Crimes. Editorial Board: Opinion Pages. The New York Times, January 17, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/17/opinion/why-we-need-a-project-to-document-hate-crimes.html.
  77. Vázquez-Herrero, Jorge, and Gisela Moreno. 2017. Documental interactivo iberoamericano: proximidad y transformación social. DOC On-line: Revista Digital de Cinema Documentário, Special Issue, 109–130. Google Scholar
  78. Walsh, Richard. 2011. Emergent Narrative in Interactive Media. Narrative 19 (1): 72–85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang, Shan. 2017. ProPublica is Leading a Nationwide Effort to Document Hate Crimes, with Local and National Partners. NiemanLab, January 23, 2017. http://www.niemanlab.org/2017/01/propublica-is-leading-a-nationwide-effort-to-document-hate-crimes-with-local-and-national-partners.
  80. Wojcik, Laura. 2015. Structured Journalism, the Next Revolution in Storytelling?. Medium, October 4, 2015. https://medium.com/interactive-journalism/structuredjournalism-the-next-revolution-in-storytelling-91557c48c121.

Web documentary projects cited in text

  1. akaKurdistan. 1997. http://www.akakurdistan.com.
  2. A Short History of the Highrise. 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/projects/2013/high-rise/index.html.
  3. Bear71. 2012. http://bear71.nfb.ca.
  4. Chicagocrime. 2005. http://www.chicagocrime.org/ [closed in 2008, out of service].
  5. Highrise, Out My Window. 2010. http://interactive.nfb.ca/#/outmywindow.
  6. Pregoneros de Medellin. 2015. https://pregonerosdemedellin.com/#es.